Organizational Culture, Observations, and Theory

Published: 2021-06-29 06:35:13
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SECTION I
Organizational Culture, Observations, and Theory
Religion
Understanding the role of religion in Greece and Italy is central to understanding their respective business cultures. Greece and Italy are renowned for the prevalence of religious influence within their art, culture, and day-to-day lives.
Greece's official state religion is Greek Orthodox Christian, with 98% of the population practicing (U.S. Department of State 2007). Italy, does not sanction an official religion, although 88% of Italians practice Roman Catholicism (U.S. Department of State 2007). Obviously, religion is an important part both cultures (Shwartz, et. al. 1995). Although the era where church and state were not separate have passed, religious nepotism still exists within the organizational cultures of Greece and Italy. (Shwartz, et. al. 1995). The strong religious favoritism of Greek's and Italian's will serve as a foundation from which to build upon the "underlying assumptions" of their respective business cultures.
Greeks identify with the Greek Orthodox religion, making it the most religiously unified nation in Europe (U.S. Department of State 2007). Not only do Greeks identify with Greek Orthodoxy, but also their involvement within the religion is omnipresent. Only 3.5% of Greeks do not regularly attend church services (U.S. Department of State 2007). This dedication to their religion plays a significant role in the Greek business landscape (Shwartz, et. al. 1995). From this, an "espoused value" of religion will be present in Greek organizational culture.
Conversely, small numbers of Muslims, Jews, etc. are insignificant relative to the prevailing Greek Orthodox religion (U.S. Department of State 2007). This observation may begin to flesh out the diversity landscape of the business ethos.
Italians have obvious connections to Roman Catholicism. From Vatican City, to historical religious art, Italy has displayed a long Christian religious heritage. Similar to the Greek situation, the Pope no longer holds jurisdiction over Italy, however, Roman Catholicism plays a major role in shaping the organizational culture. (Azkoul, 1994). Like Greece, other religions do not constitute a significant portion of the population (U.S. Department of State, 2007).
Clearly, religion is an integral factor in the organizational cultures of both Greece and Italy. It is a shared "underlying assumption" of the cultures, and can be sensed within Greece and Italy's "espoused values," or philosophies within the workplace. Conducting business between the nations will not prove difficult noting both Greek Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism are based in the same deity and holy doctrine.
Furthermore, the Globe Project Dimensions show striking similarities between Greece and Italy with respect to their Masculinity Index. This partially explains the historically male-oriented Christian religion (Hofstede, 2009). Other Globe Project Dimensions also display similar results in areas that show religion to be a contributing factor, including individuality and power distance. Again, the similarities of the religious roles in the Greek and Italian cultures and the homogeneity of the religions themselves prove commerce between the nations will not be impeded by religious difference.

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