Physiology Lecture Notes - Nervous System Recap

Published: 2021-06-29 06:45:29
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Lecture 4 -Autonomic Nervous SystemNervous system recapCentralPeripheralSomatic Has one neuron AutonomicHas two neuronsSympathetic – fight or flight, for survivalNeurotransmitter released at ganglionAcetyl choline released pre and post ganglionic neuronnorepinepherineParasympathetic – active when calm, preserves energyNeurotransmitterAcetyl choline released pre and post ganglionic neuronAcetyle choline also released…ReceptorsIonotropic- coupled to ion channelExample is acetyl choline acting on nicotinic receptors on post ganglionic neuronsMetabotropic- coupled to g proteins, change in cellular function of proteinNeurotransmitter within gangliaNeuron to effector transmissionMuscarinic receptorsDifferences between sympathetic and paraSympathetic pre ganglionic is long, other is shorterParasympathetic nerves originate from spinal cordBoth oppositesTerminologyGanglionSynapseNeurotransmitterAfferent and efferent nervesAfferent towards CNSEfferent away from CNSAdrenal GlandThere is only one neuron innovating adrenal glandPre ganglionic innovates adrenal gland located top of kidneysWhen activatedAdrenal Medulla releases hormones into blood stream[pic 1]Inner most part of adrenal gland, composoed of chromaffin cells- secrete adrenaline and epinephrine and also non adrenaline and non epinephrine [pic 2]In the adrenal meduall there is no post ganglionic neuron instead hormonesOnce released adrenaline acts on alpha and beta receptors Effects of adrenaline on heartOn beta Increases blood flow to heart musleHeart has electrical system which is coupled to contraction so once u increased rate it increases cardio contractilityThis needs more blood supplyCellular levelIncreases contraction in  heart decreases in coronary artery Adrenaline acting on beta 1 and 2Indudces calcium release from cytoplasmic reticulumBlood vesselAdrenaline acting on beta 2 receptors thru cyclic

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