Religion and Ritual Practice Beniam BetreInstructor : Mark grahamDate : 09/25/18Religion and Ritual Practice IntroductionReligion is an important concept that can be used to create cognitive consensus among certain groups. The concept of religion has been instrumental on the issue of human evolution especially in sustaining and supplying crucial metaphors that people use to interpret between themselves. Religion acted as meant for people to explore the world they are living and share the moments of their exploration. Religion offers specific techniques, resources and objectives that people use to explore the possibilities of their human experience. Religion and Ritual PracticeBowker’s article highlights issues related to religion and he argues that religion is an important concept and suggestions by scientists such as Dawkins to discard it should not be entertained. Bowler further argues that no comparisons should be made between religion and science because they are different fields those entirely independent principles. Comparing them would be unjust as they cannot compete against each other. He argues that science will always undermine religion when scientific frameworks of mind are used because science is based on measurable and clear facts, data and evidence that religion is not able to support (Bowker, 1997). Religion, on the other hand, is based on symbols, storytelling and a variety of myths that cannot be paired with science because they have an important role in historical development. Bowler explores the issue of religion as a myth of storytelling that people use to create group identity and this creates the belief in them that the power and confidence to choose between doing what is right or wrong. He further suggests that religion is a myth that is useful in explaining history that can even be proved through scientific approach especially when interpreting or clarifying facts (Bowker, 1997). Tamer’s embodied cognitive perspective of religion suggests that representations of religion facilitate group bonding and grounds of moral intuitions. Religious practices and beliefs can influence cognition and they provide direction in life especially on how ultimate goals about life ought to be. Tamer et al argue that people are often limited in thinking by their historical positioning and philosophies of their mind. Religion, therefore, becomes something that is inherent in the mind of people and it limits their thinking. On a scientific approach, the human mind is compared to a computing machine that depends on input and output devices. Religion is therefore sometimes regarded as computational core because it controls how the human mind works (Soliman, Johnson & Song, 2015). Rober Turner, on the other hand, explores ritual actions. He suggests that they act as means of enabling people to live with each other. However, symbols play a critical role when performing rituals because they are rich ineffective and cognitive meaning. Robert suggests that ritual symbols have to bind together appetitive, sensory and pre-semantic experience with normal and rational cognition. Sequencing of ritual symbols is important in creating durable alterations that are essential in determining how people act and decide on various matters (Turner, 2015).Quaker ritual and “Meeting God” Hindu RitualThe Quakers group has Christian roots and they are regarded as the Religious Society of Friends. They are of the notion that every human being has a unique worth and that there something of God in every individual. As a result, there is the belief amongst them that all people ought to be treated equally and therefore rebuke anything that can harm such individuals. There is also a belief amongst them that religious truth ought to be south through inner experience and there should be a high reliance on morality. As a result, the Quakers believe in the direct experience of God instead of relying on ceremonies and rituals. The rituals are therefore perceived as an obstruction between God and the believer (Bourke, 2003). The Quakers have a lot of emphasis on integrating everyday life with religion because they regard God to be omnipresent. There is a lot of emphasis amongst to make the world a better place and this has led them to be overly concerned with issues related with peace, social justice, community life, human rights and environmental issues (Glasgow, 1951). Despite the Quakers being a Christian domination, all members are not Christians since some of them perceive themselves to belong to a universal religion that is endowed with Christian elements. There are no formal creeds or set of beliefs that are upheld by Quakers. Instead, they are of the notion that faith should be personal and based on an individual's inner conviction since adopting a creed would mean taking on second-hand belief. There is a further belief amongst the Quakers that faith ought to be developed rather than frozen into a fixed code of belief. A direct relationship also exists between God and each believer according to the Quakers. This leads to a further believe amongst the Quakers that human beings contain truth and goodness, accepting diversity is important, human beings are ought to be equally given respect and judgments based on gender and race should not be accepted. The Quakers do not believe in any particular ritual of sacred activity for one to be in touch with God. The sacraments practised in other major churches are not regarded as vital. To compensate the holy rituals they do not believe in, the Quakers instead carry sacred in many aspects of their life (Bourke, 2003).